Resources for Intermediate Students

Women in War (4 activities)
This four-part lesson introduces students to the topic of women in the Canadian Forces and the challenges that they face. Students will analyze historical photos, read, and discuss articles that present myths about women in the infantry, explore the life of Nichola Goddard, and listen to the song “Highway of Heroes” by the Canadian band, The Trews. The “Women in War” unit culminates with each student writing a letter, either “To” or “From” a female soldier.
Subjects: History/Social Studies, Visual Arts, English, Media Literacy
Click to download the “Women in War: Introduction” (Overview of the 4 parts below).

Part 1: Pictures of Women in War
In this activity students will critically analyze images of Women in War. By assessing a variety of images students will be able to use this visual information to help them formulate a character for their letters. (Part 1 will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download: 1. Teacher’s “Pictures” PDF    2. Student “Pictures” PDF   3. “10 Photos” PDF

Part 2: Women in the Infantry: A Debate
This activity introduces students to differing perspectives on women in the military and the skill of persuasion. By the end of the lesson, students can express their positions, as well as opposing arguments, on a particular issue. (Part 2 will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download: 1. Teacher’s “Women in the Infantry” PDF    2. Five Myths PDF    3. Seven Myths PDF    4. She Went PDF

Part 3: Captain Nichola Goddard: A Case Study
To help students craft letters that are rich with both facts and emotion students will study Nichola Goddard. Hearing Nichola Goddard’s story from those who cared most for her will help the students give voice to the characters in their letters. (Part 3 will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download the “Nichola Goddard” PDF


Part 4: Letters To or From a Female Soldier
In this culminating activity students will compose letters either “to” or “from” a female soldier from an era in history of their choosing. Students are to incorporate information gathered over the course of this unit to bring their characters to life. (Part 4 will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download: 1. Teacher’s “Letters” PDF    2. Student “Letters” PDF

Nursing sisters of No.10 Canadian General Hospital (R.C.A.M.C.), France, 23July1944 (Credit: LAC M#3194289).

Lance Corporal John Shiwak
This lesson explores Lance Corporal John Shiwak, a skilled sniper and Inuk member of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment who died in France during the First World War. Students will watch a short YouTube video clip (5m:42) about the Lance Corporal and then engage in a creative exercise and create a work of art based on Shiwak’s time in the trenches. (This lesson will take at least 45 minutes).
Click to download the “Shiwak” PDF


D-Day: The Crossword Puzzle Mystery
This lesson introduces students to D-Day, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. First the students will watch a short documentary (10m:06) describing D-Day. Second, a newspaper article that talks of a suspicious pre-D-Day crossword puzzle is reviewed. Lastly, the students will complete their own crossword puzzle containing clues and words related to the Normandy Invasion. (This lesson will take at least 45 minutes).
Click to download the “D-Day” PDF


D-Day: Video Analysis (3 Activities)
After viewing a two minute D-Day video showing Canadian soldiers disembarking from a landing craft onto Juno Beach, students will complete one (or more) of three activities described in the PDF (Think-Pair-Share, KWL, Crossword). Students will also learn about Sgt Bill Grant (the man who took the video) and the context within which the video was filmed. (With all 3 activities this lesson will take at least 75 minutes).
Click to download the “D-Day Video Analysis” PDF

A coloured image of Lance Corporal John Shiwak (Credit: Canadian Virtual War Memorial, Veterans Affairs Canada).

Flying Officer Daryl “Doc” Seaman
This lesson explores Flying Officer Daryl “Doc” Seaman, an inspirational Canadian who served in the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War. Students will watch a short YouTube video (8m:17) about “Doc” and then discuss questions related to his life and his legacy. (This lesson will take at least 30 minutes).
Click to download the “Seaman” PDF

Private John Pattison, VC – Using Primary Sources
This lesson explores the life of John Pattison, one of the four Canadians who were awarded a Victoria Cross for actions taken during the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April of 1917. Students will watch Valour Canada’s John Pattison documentary (6m:19) and consider the man’s life, his reason for enlisting, and his actions at Vimy Ridge. Students will then use replicas of primary source documents to address at least one of the provided discussion topics, i.e. research questions. The task finishes with students designing an epitaph for Pattison’s headstone. (This lesson will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download the “Pattison” PDF

Charles “Chuck” Mawer (Credit: Mawer family).

Commander Charles “Chuck” Mawer
This lesson explores Commander Charles “Chuck” Mawer, commander of the HMCS Haida during the Second World War. Students will watch a short YouTube video (4m:36) about Commander Mawer and his time aboard Haida and then discuss traits and qualities of a heroic person. This activity will also familiarize students with different military commendations and orders and encourage them to think about different ways in which people act with valour and bravery. (This lesson will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download the “Mawer” PDF


MCpl Mitic & Sgt Gilmore: Force Multipliers
This lesson explores the story of Canadian Forces sniper Jody Mitic and medic Alannah Gilmore who were brought together amid war and disaster during a tour in Afghanistan. Students will have a discussion on “service” to one’s country and “purpose” in life following a documentary video (11m:57). The lesson finishes with a fun KIMS (Keep in Mind) game that develops skills frequently used by police officers, detectives, and snipers, among others. (This lesson will take at least 1 hour in-class).
Click to download the “Force Multipliers” PDF

Forgotten Fallen: Monumental Canadians Video Assignment
This lesson explores four individuals, each from a different segment of the Canadian population, who made the ultimate sacrifice during the First World War, and whose bodies were never found. Students will watch Valour Canada’s award-winning Forgotten Fallen(29m:25) documentaire sur Thomas Riley, Talbot Papineau, Margaret Fraser et John Shiwak. Les élèves réfléchiront sur le matériel qu'ils ont regardé en répondant à des questions basées sur ces Canadiens et considéreront le rôle important que l'histoire joue dans la vie quotidienne des gens. (Cette leçon prendra au moins 75 minutes).
Cliquez pour télécharger le PDF « Forgotten Fallen »


Matrone Margaret Marjory Fraser
Cette leçon explore la carrière et la vie de Matrone Margaret Fraser, une infirmière canadienne qui a péri en 1917 après que le navire-hôpital à bord duquel elle se trouvait, le HMHS Llandovery Castle, a été heurté par un sous-marin allemand. Les élèves regarderont un segment (6m:18) de l'émission primée de Valour CanadaForgotten Fallendocumentaire et examiner le rôle des femmes dans la guerre, les occurrences d'atrocités, ainsi qu'explorer le concept de justice et porter un jugement basé sur des preuves pour savoir si justice a été rendue dans le cas du château de Llandovery. (Cette leçon prendra au moins 1 heure).
Cliquez pour télécharger le PDF "Matrone Fraser"

HMHS Llandovery Castle (Source : Archives de la Nouvelle-Écosse).

Soldat Thomas Riley
Cette leçon explore le soldat Thomas Riley et la guerre des tranchées. Le soldat Thomas Riley était un mitrailleur Lewis dans le 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles (1CMR) qui est mort le 26 octobre 1917. Un segment (4m:50) de notre priméForgotten Fallen documentary that tells Private Riley’s story will provide context for activities based around trench warfare. Students will work as a class to decide which questions about trench warfare and World War One are most important and then share their answers with their class. (This lesson will take at least 75 minutes).
Click to download the “Riley” PDF


General Sir Arthur Currie: Interpreting Evidence
This lesson explores the accomplishments of Sir Arthur Currie, Canada’s top General during the First World War . . . but how effective was he? Students will watch our Currie documentary on YouTube (8m:52) and note any narration that discusses reasons for Currie’s success. Then the students will research (online or in the library) for evidence that supports the “top General” label (or suggests otherwise) before formulating their own written personal conclusion. (This lesson will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download “Currie” PDF


Flight Lieutenant Terry Taerum, DFC – Dambuster
This lesson explores the accomplishments of Harlow “Terry” Taerum, one of the Dambusters during the Second World War. Students will watch the Taerum documentary on YouTube (6m:38) and then practice their historical thinking skills in reference to Taerum’s Ruhr Dambuster raid. (This lesson will take at least 30 minutes).
Click to download “Taerum” PDF

Nichola in Afghanistan (Credit:

Captain Nichola Goddard: A Legacy of Service
This lesson explores the inspired life of Canadian Forces Captain Nichola Goddard and her tragic death in Afghanistan. Students will make “Afghan Chai” tea and participate in a “Shura” (meeting) while watching this short YouTube video (6m:19). The students will then read a selection of Goddard’s Letters. The lesson finishes with a guided discussion that includes topics such as: Canada’s mission in Afghanistan, equality of opportunity in the Canadian Forces, and life & legacy. (This lesson will take at least 1 hour).
Click to download “A Legacy of Service” PDF

The design of Valour Canada’s educational content is guided primarily by two learning theories:

Six Historical Thinking Concepts (Seixas and Colyer) and Bloom’s Taxonomy (Revised in 2001: Anderson and Krathwol)

Credit: University of Waterloo (Bloom’s Taxonomy), the Historical Thinking Project.

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